Historical happenings

10/21/1879 ~ After 14 months of testing, Thomas Edison first demonstrates his electric lamp, hoping to one day compete with gaslight.

10/21/1942 ~ Eight American and British officers land from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.

10/21/1959 ~ The Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens in Manhattan.

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Historical happenings

10/20/1818 ~ The United States and Britain establish the 49th Parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States.

10/20/1903 ~ The Joint Commission, set up on January 24 by Great Britain and the United States to arbitrate the disputed Alaskan boundary, rules in favor of the United States. The deciding vote is Britain’s, which embitters Canada. The United States gains ports on the panhandle coast of Alaska.

10/20/1973 ~ Arab oil-producing nations ban oil exports to the United States following the outbreak of the Arab-Israeli war.

Historical happenings

10/19/1848 ~ John “The Pathfinder” Fremont moves out from near Westport, Missouri, on his fourth Western expedition–a failed attempt to open a trail across the Rocky Mountains along the 38th parallel.

10/19/1942 ~ The Japanese submarine I-36 launches a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew report on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft is lost at sea.

10/19/1950 ~ The North Korean capital of Pyongyang is captured by U.N. troops.

Historical happenings

10/18/1867 ~ The Alaska territory is formally transferred to the U.S. from Russian control.

10/18/1921 ~ Russian Soviets grant Crimean independence.

10/18/1950 ~ The First Turkish Brigade arrives in Korea to assist the U.N. forces fighting there.

Historical happenings

10/17/1815 Napoleon Bonaparte arrives at the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic, where he has been banished by the Allies.

10/17/1877 ~ Brigadier General Alfred Terry meets with Sitting Bull in Canada to discuss the Indians’ return to the United States.

10/17/1972 ~ Peace talks between the Pathet Lao and the Royal Lao government begin in Vietnam.

Historical happenings

10/16/1813 ~ The United States defeats the British Fleet at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812.

10/16/1908 ~ The first airplane flight in England is made at Farnborough, by Samuel Cody, a U.S. citizen.

10/16/1934 ~ Mao Tse-tung decides to abandon his base in Jiangxi due to attacks from Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists. With his pregnant wife and about 30,000 Red Army troops, he sets out on the “Long March.”

Historical happenings

10/14/651 ~ Laws are passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive styles of dress.

10/14/1912 ~ Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt is shot and wounded in an assassination attempt in Milwaukee. He is saved by the papers in his breast pocket and, though wounded, insists on finishing his speech.

10/14/1947 ~ Test pilot Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier aboard a Bell X-1 rocket plane.